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Centre for Digital Built Britain


CDBB has published the first output of its Digital Framework Task Group, The Gemini Principles. The paper sets out proposed principles to guide the national digital twin and the information management framework that will enable it.

What are the Gemini Principles?

Gemini Principles[Download the report]

As an industry we are beginning to understand that data needs to be valued, managed effectively and shared securely. We now need a common set of definitions and principles that can be adopted across the sector to underpin the development of the national digital twin. The Digital Framework Task Group is bringing together stakeholders from government, industry and academia to build a consensus on these definitions and values, which it has called the Gemini Principles.

The Gemini Principles report was published by the Centre for Digital Built Britain in December 2018 to begin enabling alignment on the approach to information management across the built environment, as establishing agreed definitions and principles from the outset will make it easier to share data in the future.

These principles are effectively the conscience of the information management framework and the national digital twin. To ensure that these two initiatives are – and remain – for the public good, they need strong founding values to guide them.

Enshrined in these values is the notion that all digital twins must have clear purpose, must be trustworthy and must function effectively. All the Gemini Principles flow from this. They are deliberately simple, but their implications are far-reaching and challenging. They are descriptive of intent, but agnostic on solutions, to encourage innovation and development over time.

The Gemini Principles will continue to evolve as the National Digital Twin evolves and we seek ongoing input into their development from across the sector.

Gemini Principles Image2

The National Digital Twin and the Gemini Principles


  • Digital twin - A realistic digital representation of something physical.
  • National digital twin - An ecosystem of digital twins connected via securely shared data.
  • Information management framework - Enabling effective information management across the built environment.

Feedback to the Gemini Principles

We are actively encouraging feedback to the Gemini Principles. If you would like to feed back please email:


Background to the Gemini Principles

Greater data sharing could release an additional £7 billion per year of benefits across the UK infrastructure sectors [1] , equivalent to 25% of total infrastructure spend.[2] The Digital Framework Task Group (DFTG) launches the Gemini Principles, bringing together key voices from government, academia and industry to provide the sector with foundational definitions and values to guide the development of the National Digital Twin (NDT), an ecosystem of digital twins that are connected by securely shared data. It starts to address the key recommendations in the National Infrastructure Commission (NIC)’s 2017 report ‘Data for the public good’.  This work forms part of Centre for Digital Built Britain’s remit as the national focus for the digital transformation of the built environment.

The NDT will be a national resource for improving the performance, service and value delivered by the UK’s infrastructure; delivering benefits to society, business, the environment, and the economy. CDBB has been tasked with delivering the information management framework to underpin the NDT, and a series of pilot digital twins. The framework forms an integral part of HM Government’s modern Industrial Strategy and Construction Sector Deal.

Richard Harrington MP, Minister for Business and Industry for the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, said Digital technology is transforming the way we manage our built environment, and this collaborative work paves the way for better data-sharing that will put the UK at the forefront of digital construction and smarter infrastructure that’s more cost effective, delivers better services and energy efficient.

“This initiative embodies the aims of the Construction Sector Deal as we boost the skills and innovation within the industry so it’s best placed to take advantage of the projected £600 billion pipeline of infrastructure projects to be delivered over the coming decades.”

Mark Enzer, Chair of the DFTG, said “The Gemini Principles are effectively the conscience of the digital built environment. If we want the National Digital Twin and information management framework to be for the public good, forever, we need start with strong founding values.

“Appropriate coordination is required to achieve the huge potential benefits,” continues Enzer, “the Gemini Principles are intended to help facilitate alignment for stakeholders throughout the built environment, and I look forward to engaging widely on the next steps via the roadmap.”

Professor Andy Neely, Director of CDBB, said “Effective information management has the potential to make significant cost savings and also promises infrastructure service improvements for the benefit of the citizens of the UK. I welcome the Gemini Principles as the next step towards making digital transformation work for the public good across the built environment.

“I would like to thank the DFTG for bringing together a wide range of stakeholders to start building consensus and to guide the future built environment.  I would encourage industry leaders to engage with the DFTG and to act as champions for delivering the organisational, societal and economic benefits possible through effective information management.”

Based on the NIC’s notion of ‘data for the public good’, the nine foundational Gemini Principles are: public good, value creation, insight, security, openness, quality, federation, curation, and evolution.

The next output of the DFTG will be the roadmap, a prioritised plan that proposes the best route for delivering the information management framework, due to be published in early 2019. Leaders involved in planning, creating and managing the built environment are invited to provide feedback on the Gemini Principles and future roadmap by contacting

Digital Framework Task Group

The Centre for Digital Built Britain’s Digital Framework Task Group (DFTG) was launched by HM Treasury in July 2018. It reports to HM Government through the CDBB Strategic Advisory Board. The overarching purpose of the DFTG is to steer and guide the successful development and adoption of the “Information Management Framework for the Built Environment”. 

The creation of the framework forms an integral part of HM Government’s modern Industrial Strategy and Construction Sector Deal. The framework will establish the building blocks to enable effective information management across the built environment and will pave the way for the development of the national digital twin. The DFTG is made up of senior leaders within the landscape and is chaired by Mark Enzer, Chief Technical Officer of Mott MacDonald.


Digital twin: A realistic digital representation of something physical. What distinguishes a digital twin from any other digital model is its connection to the physical twin.

Information management framework: All that is necessary to enable effective information management across the built environment. It addresses secure, resilient interoperability, which is fundamental for creation of a national digital twin.

Gemini Principles: Values to guide the development and use of the information management framework and the NDT.

NDT: National digital twin – an ecosystem of digital twins that are connected by securely shared data.

[1] New Technologies Case Study: Data Sharing in Infrastructure - A final report for the National Infrastructure Commission. Deloitte, November 2017. 

[2] Developing new statistics of infrastructure: August 2018. Office for National Statistics, August 2018.